The Indian judicial system is one of the best in the world. As Indians, we are extremely proud of our judicial system as it is based on principles of justice and fairness. The Indian judicial system comprises the Supreme Court, High Courts, and subordinate courts found at the municipal, village, and district levels. Let us understand the types of courts in India.
Hierarchy of courts in India
The Indian judiciary is divided into not one but several levels to decentralize affairs at all levels. The fundamental structure of the Indian judicial system is as follows:
The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the country. It was established on January 28, 1950. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeals. The court hears not only original claims but also appeals from High Court judgments. The Supreme Court consists of 25 judges and the Chief Justice of India. The authority of the Supreme Court of India is established in Articles 124 to 147 of the Indian Constitution.
The highest judicial body at the state level is the Superior Courts. Article 214 of the Indian Constitution establishes the authority of the High Court. There are currently 25 High Courts in the country. The High Courts of India exercise both criminal and civil jurisdiction. Competence is exercised by the Superior Courts only in cases where the country’s subordinate courts are not really competent to hear such matters. Appeals from the lower courts may also be filed by the High Courts. It is the President of India who appoints the judges of the High Court; however, this is done after consultation with the Governor of the State, the Chief Justice and the Chief Justice of India.
District Courts are created by the state governments of India for each and every group of districts or districts based on population density and number of cases. In reality, these courts are under the direct administration of the High Courts. They are subject to the judgments of the High Court.
Each district in India usually has two types of courts: civil courts and criminal courts.
District judges preside over district courts. Depending on the number of cases, additional district judges and assistant district judges may be appointed. Appeals against District Court judgments go to the High Court.
The people’s courts are also known as Lok Adalats. These are nothing more than subordinate courts at the village level. They offer an alternative dispute resolution system at the village level.
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