Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Biography: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist whose patriotism towards India has left a mark on the hearts of many Indians. He is known as the founder of ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ and his famous motto is ‘Tum Mujhe Khoon Do, Main Tumhe Aazadi Dunga’. Today we celebrate his 126th birth anniversary as Parakram Diwas.
Today, on Parakram Diwas, I pay tribute to Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and remember his incomparable contribution to the history of India. He will be remembered for his fierce resistance to colonial rule. Deeply influenced by his thoughts, we are working to realize his vision of India.
– Narendra Modi (@narendramodi)
January 23, 2023
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa and died on August 18, 1945 in a hospital in Taiwan after suffering burns sustained in a plane crash.
Subhas Chandra Bose is considered the most influential freedom fighter, with extraordinary leadership skills and a charismatic orator. His famous mottos are ‘tum mujhe khoon do, main tumhe aazadi dunga’, ‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Delhi Chalo’. He formed Azad Hind Fauj and made several contributions to India’s freedom struggle. He is known for the militant approach he used to gain independence and for his socialist policies.
Date of Birth: 23 January 1897 Place of Birth: Cuttack, Odisha Parents: Janakinath Bose (father) and Prabhavati Devi (mother) Wife: Emily Schenkl Children: Anita Bose Pfaff Education: Ravenshaw Collegiate School, Cuttack; Presidency College, Calcutta; University of Cambridge, England Associations (Political Party): Indian National Congress; Forward Block; Indian National ArmyMovements: Indian Freedom MovementPolitical ideology: Nationalism; Communism; Religious beliefs with a tendency towards fascism: Hinduism
Subhas Chandra Bose: family history and early life
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose. His father was a successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title “Rai Bahadur”. He did his schooling at the European Protestant School (now Stewart High School) in Cuttack, as did his siblings. He completed high school at the Presidency College. He was influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna after reading their works at the age of 16. His parents then sent him to Cambridge University in England to prepare for the Indian civil service. In 1920 he passed the civil service examination, but in April 1921, after learning of the nationalist unrest in India, he renounced his candidacy and hurried back to India.
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Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Congress
He joined the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Mahatama Gandhi, who made the INC a powerful non-violent organization. During the movement, Mahatma Gandhi advised him to work with Chittaranjan Das, who became his political guru. After that, he became a youth educator and commander of the Bengal Congress Volunteers. He founded the newspaper ‘Swaraj’. In 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of the Congress Party and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.
In 1938 he was elected president of the Indian National Congress and formed a national planning committee, which formulated a policy of extensive industrialization. However, this did not harmonize with Gandhian economic thought, which clung to the notion of cottage industries and profit from the use of the country’s own resources. Bose’s vindication came in 1939, when he defeated a rival of Gandhi for re-election. However, the “rebel president” felt forced to resign due to Gandhi’s lack of support.
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Subhas Chandra Bose and the formation of Forward Bloc
All India Forward Bloc was a left-wing nationalist political party in India that emerged as a faction within the Indian Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. He was well known for his left-wing views in Congress. The main objective of the Froward Bloc was to bring together all the radical elements of the Congress Party. So that it could spread the meaning of complete independence of India with respect to the application of the principles of equality and social justice.
Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauz
An important development in the freedom struggle during World War II was the formation and activities of the Azad Hind Fauj, also known as the Indian National Army or INA. Rash Behari Bose, an Indian revolutionary who had escaped from India and lived in Japan for many years, created the Indian Independence League with the support of Indians living in Southeast Asian countries.
When Japan defeated the British armies and occupied almost all the countries of Southeast Asia, the league formed the Indian National Army among Indian prisoners of war with the aim of liberating India from British rule. General Mohan Singh, who had been an officer in the British Indian Army, played an important role in organizing this army.
Meanwhile, Subhas Chandra Bose escaped from India in 1941 and went to Germany to work for Indian independence. In 1943, he arrived in Singapore to lead the Indian Independence League and rebuild the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) into an effective instrument of Indian freedom. The Azad Hind Fauj was composed of about 45,000 soldiers, among whom were Indian prisoners of war and Indians settled in various Southeast Asian countries.
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On October 21, 1943, Subhas Bose, now popularly known as Netaji, proclaimed the formation of the provisional government of independent India (Azad Hind) in Singapore. Netaji went to the Andaman Islands, which had been occupied by the Japanese, and hoisted the Indian flag there. In early 1944, three units of the Azad Hind Fauj (INA) took part in the attack on northeast India to drive the British out of India. According to Shah Nawaz Khan, one of the most prominent officers of the Azad Hind Fauj, the soldiers who had entered India lay down on the ground and passionately kissed the sacred land of their homeland. However, the attempt to liberate India by the Azad Hind Fauj failed.
The Indian nationalist movement did not consider the Japanese government a friend of India. Their solidarity is with the people of the countries that have been victims of Japanese aggression. Netaji, however, believed that with the help of the Japanese-backed Azad Hind Fauj and a revolt within India, British rule over India could be ended. The Azad Hind Fauj, with the motto ‘Delhi Chalo’ and the Jai Hind salute was a source of inspiration for Indians, within and outside the country. Netaji joined hands with Indians of all religions and regions living in Southeast Asia for the cause of Indian freedom.
Indian women also played an important role in Indian freedom activities. A women’s regiment of Azad Hind Fauj was formed, which was under the command of Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan. It was called Rani Jhansi regiment. The Azad Hind Fauj became the symbol of unity and heroism for the people of India. Netaji, who had been one of the greatest leaders of India’s freedom struggle, died in a plane crash just days after Japan’s surrender.
World War II ended in 1945 with the defeat of fascist Germany and Italy. Millions of people died in the war. When the war was coming to an end and Italy and Germany had already been defeated, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the two cities of Japan: Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Within moments, these cities were burned and more than 200,000 people died. Japan surrendered shortly after this. Although the use of atomic bombs ended the war, it caused new tensions in the world and a new competition to manufacture increasingly deadly weapons that could destroy all of humanity.
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